Frequently Asked Questions

  1. Where is the Coral Triangle located?
  2. The Coral Triangle encompasses 647 million hectares of land and sea located within the territories of Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Timor-Leste. The Coral Triangle is a geographical term that refers to a roughly triangular shape of marine waters between the Pacific and Indian oceans. For more details, see the CTI-CFF Regional Map

  3. Why is the Coral Triangle important?
  4. The Coral Triangle is unique and important because it is home to the highest concentration of marine species on the planet. The Coral Triangle, often called “the Amazon of the seas”, is home to 600 corals or 76% of the world’s known coral species. It contains the highest reef fish diversity with 2,500 or 37% of the world’s reef fish species. It is also a spawning and nursery ground for six of the world’s seven species of marine turtles.  Endangered fish and cetaceans such as tuna and blue whales also live and reproduce in the Coral Triangle. No other area on earth contains as many marine species as this region.

  5. What are the threats to the Coral Triangle?
  6. Scientific studies have shown that 90% of the Coral Triangle’s rich and unique resources are threatened by over-fishing, unsustainable fishing practices, land-based sources of pollution and climate change.  If these threats continue, the Coral Triangle’s reef systems will be decimated together with the fish and marine organisms that it supports and seriously undermine the world’s marine biodiversity pool and the region’s food security situation. These threats will also directly impact the livelihoods and food security of the 364 million people who live within the Coral Triangle’s.

  7. What is the Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security (CTI-CFF)?
  8. The CTI-CFF is a multilateral partnership formed by the governments of the six Coral Triangle countries in 2009 to address the growing threats to the Coral Triangle.  Under the CTI-CFF, the six countries signed a declaration to protect the Coral Triangle and committed to implement a Regional Plan of Action (RPOA) with five goals: designation of effectively managed seascapes; application of an ecosystem approach to fisheries management; establishment of a fully functional marine protected area system; strengthening climate change adaptation and resilience; and improving the status of threatened marine species. The six countries then developed their respective CTI-CFF National Plans of Action to adopt the regional goals to their local conditions.

  9. What are the activities of the CTI-CFF?
  10. The CTI-CFF member countries implement activities specified under the CTI-CFF RPOA and corresponding CTI National Plans of Action. Every year, the CTI-CFF Senior Officials also gather to agree on a roadmap of priority regional activities that will be implemented in the coming year. These activities can be viewed at the CTI-CFF website.

  11. How does the CTI-CFF operate?
  12. The CTI-CFF operates through a core decision-making and implementing bodies, including the CTI-CFF Council of Ministers, the CTI-CFF Committee of Senior Officials, and the CTI-CFF National Coordinating Committees, all of which are supported by the CTI-CFF Regional Secretariat.

    The CTI-CFF Council of Ministers (CTICOM) is the highest formal decision-making body of the initiative that meets regularly and has the power to adopt and approve CTI-CFF resolutions at Ministerial Meetings.  Each Minister heads the primary agency tasked to implement the CTI RPOA in their respective countries. The Chairmanship of the CTICOM rotates among the six countries and has a fixed term.

    The CTI-CFF Committee of Senior Officials is composed of designated senior government officers from the six Coral Triangle countries who are tasked to oversee and decide on the technical decisions of the CTI-CFF as well as provide direction to the Regional Secretariat. The Senior Officials meet annually or as needed to ensure that the business of the CTI-CFF is carried out efficiently.

    The CTI-CFF Regional Secretariat is the primary body that coordinates the implementation of the CTI Regional Plan of Action. The Regional Secretariat coordinates, and supports official meetings and events being implemented under the CTI-CFF RPOA road map. These include the annual high-level CTI-CFF Senior Officials Meeting and Ministerial Meetings and the periodic meetings and workshops organized by the technical working groups. The Regional Secretariat also provides technical and coordination support to the NCCs on emerging opportunities and priorities related to reaching the goals and targets of the CTICFF Regional and National Plans of Action. In addition, the Regional Secretariat serves as the primary communication platform for the CTI-CFF.

    The CTI National Coordinating Committees (NCC) are the national interagency committees responsible for guiding and ensuring implementation of the CTI Regional and National Plans of Action in their respective countries. They are composed of officials from designated government agencies, representatives of NGOs and academic institutions that meet regularly and decide on the priority CTI-CFF activities. CTI NCC members also represent their countries in CTI-CFF Technical Working Groups and at regional CTI meetings. The CTI NCCs are based in government agencies, work with various development partners who are implementing CTI-CFF activities at the national and local levels, and also conduct outreach and communications activities.

  13. What are the functions of the CTI-CFF Technical Working Groups?
  14. The CTI-CFF Technical Working Groups are composed of focal points nominated by each of the CTI NCCs as well as technical experts supported by development partners and donor organizations. Each Technical Working Group is headed by one or two countries. The groups provide technical inputs and recommendations to Senior Officials Meetings, National Coordinating Committees and the Regional Secretariat and advance implementation towards the goals of the CTI-CFF Regional Plan of Action. As a part of their ongoing work, the groups meet periodically and report on progress every year at the Senior Officials Meeting.

  15. How does the CTI-CFF work with local communities?
  16. There are an estimated 120 million people living in coastal communities who are directly dependent on the Coral Triangle’s resources for their food and livelihoods and are considered the most direct beneficiaries of CTI-CFF’s coastal and marine resource management programs. There are many constituencies that can be targeted at the local level and development partners and international NGOs have directly engaged and worked with coastal communities across the Coral Triangle through their various community-based programs.

    The CTI-CFF also engages local government leaders through the CTI Local Government Network, composed of roughly 100 mayors, premiers, and governors in the Coral Triangle countries, and build on various CT6 initiatives.

    The CTI-CFF Regional Secretariat, NCCs and Partners are working to expand the participation of local government leaders in CTI-CFF activities, including through a CTI Local Governance Network. The network aims to improve the capacity of local government leaders in addressing various coastal and marine resource sustainability issues in their localities and to recognize their critical role in achieving the goals of the CTI-CFF.

  17. What are the roles of the CTI-CFF Partners?
  18. The CTI-CFF partners listed here  are development and non-government organizations who support the CTI-CFF Regional Secretariat and the CTI National Coordinating Committees in achieving the goals specified by the CTI Regional Plan of Action. The partners support the CTI-CFF by providing technical and scientific expertise; funding for priority conservation and sustainability projects and activities at the regional, national and community level; preparation of reports and studies; and communications support to increase public awareness about the Coral Triangle and the CTI-CFF.

  19. How does the CTI-CFF engage with the private sector?
  20. The CTI-CFF has engaged the private sector through an annual CTI Regional Business Forum. The forum engages business and industry leaders in developing innovative solutions that are profitable and sustainable for the Coral Triangle region and promote new partnerships with the private sector, CTI member countries, NGOs, and international institutions to foster shared goals for sustainable marine resources. Apart from the forum, Development Partners and NGOs working to support the CTI-CFF have developed partnerships with businesses to support their programs and projects at the site level.

  21. How can I become involved in CTI-CFF activities?
  22. The CTI-CFF is open to collaborations with individuals and organizations.  Organizations and individuals located in each of the Coral Triangle countries can contact their respective CTI National Coordinating Committee focal points here. Those who are interested in collaborating with the CTI-CFF at the regional level may contact the CTI-CFF Regional Secretariat here.

  23. Who should I contact if I want to learn more about the CTI-CFF?
  24. For more inquiries about the CTI-CFF, contact Andie Wibianto,  Communication Specialist, CTI-CFF Regional Secretariat, Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries, and Food Security Secretariat Building, Jl. A.A. Maramis Kayuwatu, Kairagi II, Manado, North Sulawesi 95254, Indonesia, Phone  +62 (431) 7241878 (direct)  Email: